ReThink everything you thought you Knew

II The Old Testament


Especially important
Good introduction
Difficulty: 1 Easiest - 4 Hardest

Introductions and/or Commentaries


T. B. Dozeman, G. A. Evans, J. N. Lohr, eds., The Book of Exodus (Brill, 2014) 3

H. Elliot, The Message of Genesis (Broadman 1961) 2

R. Fyall, a Now My Eyes Have Seen You: Images of Creation and Evil in the Book of Job (InterVarsity, 2002) 3

C. F. Keil, F. Delitzsch, Biblical Commentary on the Old Testament: The Pentateuch (Eerdmans, rpt., 1950) 2

T. Fretheim, Exodus (John Knox, 1991) 2

.J Goldingay, Daniel (Word, 1989) 2

A. E. Hill, A Survey of the Old Testament (Zondervan, 1991) 2

W. S. Lasor, D. A. Hubbard, F. W. Bush, Old Testament Survey (Eerdmans, 1982) 2

G. McConville, S. N. Williams, Joshua (Eerdmans, 2010) 2

D. Patte, ed., Global Bible Commentary (Abingdon Press, 2004) 2

D. Peterson, The Prophetic Literature (Westminster John Knox, 2002) 2

G. Tucker, et. al., Canon, Theology and Old Testament Interpretation (Fortress, 1988) 2

J. Sailhamer, The Pentateuch as Narrative (Zondervan, 1992) 2

E. Theile, M. Theile, Job and the Devil (Pacific Press, 1988) 1

G. von Rad, Genesis: A Commentary (Westminster, 1972) 3

B. K. Waltke, An Old Testament Theology: An Exegetical, Canonical and Thematic Approach (Grand Rapids: Zondervan, 2007) 2

J. H. Walton, Genesis (Zondervan, 2001) 2

G. J. Wenham, Genesis (Word, 1987) 2

Ancient Near Eastern Studies and the Old Testament

Note: These are works that show how understanding the Old Testament in its Ancient Near Eastern context sheds light on the meaning of the Old Testament and/or that demonstrate the degree to which Israelites were and were not influenced by the cultures that surrounded them. Greg’s interest in this area is focused on the degree to which the violent portraits of God in the Old Testament are similar to, and influenced by, violent depictions of various gods in Ancient Near Eastern literature.



J. Ackerman, “An Exegetical Study of Psalm 82,” (Th.D. Dissertation, Harvard University (1966) 3

Y. Amit, N. Naaman, eds., Essays on Ancient Israel in Its Near Eastern Context (Eisenbrauns, 2006) 3

B. T. Arnold, Readings From the Ancient Near East: Primary Sources for Old Testament Study (Baker Academic, 2002) 3

Albrecktson, B. History of the Gods ( Gleerup, 1967) 3

B. Batto, Slaying the Dragon: Mythmaking in the Biblical Tradition (Westminster John Knox, 1992) 3

J. Black, A. Green, God’s, Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia (University of Texas Press, 1992) 2

D. I. Block, The Gods of the Nations (Evangelical Theological Society, 1988) 3

C. Braaten, History and Hermeneutics (Westminster, 1968) 3

M. Z. Brettler, God is King: Understanding an Israelite Metaphor (Sheffield Academic Press, 1989) 3

G. J. Brooke, A. H. W. Curtis, J. F. Healey, eds., Ugarit and the Bible (Ugarit-Verlag, 1994) 3

M. W. Chavalas, K. L. Younger, eds., Mesopotamia and the Bible (Baker, 2002) 2

R. E. Clements, The World of Ancient Israel (Cambridge University Press, 1989) 3

R. J. Clifford, Creation Accounts in the Ancient Near East and in the Bible (Catholic Biblical Association of America, 1994) 3

—- The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament (Harvard University Press, 1972) 3

P. Craigie, Ugarit and the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1983) 2

F. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (Harvard University Press, 1973) 3

C. C. Crouch, War and Ethics in the Ancient Near East: Military Violence in Light of Cosmology and History ( W. de Gruyter, 2009) 3

W. Davis, The Codes of Hammurabi and Moses (Book Jungle, 2006) 2

W. T. David, Magic, Divination and Demonology Among the Hebrews and Their Neighbors (KTAV, rpt. 1969 [1898]) 3

J. Day, God’s Conflict With the Dragon and the Sea: Echoes of a Canaanite Myth in the Old Testament (Cambridge University Press, 1985) 3

—- ed., King and Messiah in Israel and the Ancient Near East (Sheffield Academic Press, 1998) 3

—-Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000) 3

C. D. Evans, ed., Scripture in Context (Pickwick, 1980) 2

R. Fyall, Now My Eyes Have Seen You: Images of Creation and Evil in the Book of Job (InterVarsity, 2002) 3

H. Frankfort, Kingship and the Gods: A Study of Ancient Near Eastern Religion as the Integration of Society & Nature(University of Chicago Press, 1948) 3

T. H. Gaster, Myth, Legend, and Custom in the Old Testament (Harper & Row, 1969) 2

J. C. L. Gibson, Canaanite Myths and Legends (T & T Clark, 1978) 3

A. Gibson, Text and Tablet: Near Eastern Archaeology, the Old Testament and New Possibilities (Ashgate, 2000) 3

C. Gordon, Before the Bible: The Common Background of Greek and Hebrew Civilization (Collins, 1962) 2

C. Gordon, G. Rendsburg, The Bible and the Ancient Near East (W.W. Norton & Co., 4th ed., 1997) 3

J. Goldstein, Peoples of an Almighty God (Yale University Press, 2002) 3

R. Gordon, J. C. de Moor, ed., The Old Testament in Its World (Brill, 2005) 2

J. Gray, The Legacy of Canaan (Brill, 1965) 3

H. Gunkel, Schöpfung und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit: Eine religiongeschichtliche Unterruschung über Gen 1 und Ap Job 12 (Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1895) 3

A. Heidel, The Babylonian Genesis: The Story of Creation (University of Chicago Press, 1951) 2

—- The Gilgamesh Epic and Old Testament Parallels (University of Chicago Press, 1949) 2

I. Hopfe, eds., Uncovering Ancient Stones (Eisenbrauns, 1994) 3

S.-M. Kang, Divine War in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East (de Gruyter, 1989) 3

M. Klingbeil, Yahweh Fighting From Heaven: God as Warrior and as God of Heaven in the Hebrew Psalter and Ancient Near East Iconography (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1999) 3

C. Kloos, Yhwh’s Combat with the Sea: A Canaanite Tradition in the Religion of Ancient Israel (Brill, 1986) 3

N. Kramer, ed., Mythologies of the Ancient World (Doubleday, 1961) 2

B. Lang, The Hebrew God (Yale University Press, 2002) 2

G. Manfred, Mythos und Mythologie: Studien zur Relgionsgeschichte und Theologie (Harrossowitez, 2010) 3

V.H. Matthews, Old Testament Parallels (Paulist Press, rev.ed., 2007) 2

S. D. McBride, eds., Ancient Israelite Religion (Fortress, 1987) 2

A. R. Millard, J. K. Hoffmeier, D. W. Baker, eds., Faith, Tradition and History (Eisenbrauns, 1999) 2

P.D. Miller, The Divine Warrior in Early Israel (Harvard University Press, 1973) 3

M. J. Mulder, Kanaänitische Goden in het Oude Testament (Van Keulen), 1965) 3

T. Mullen Jr., The Assembly of the Gods: The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature (Scholars Press, 1980) 3

J. Niehaus, Ancient Near Eastern Themes in Biblical Theology (Grand Rapids: Kregel, 2008) 2

—- J. Niehaus, God at Sinai: Covenant and Theophany in the Bible and the Ancient Near East (Zondervan, 1995) 2

S. Niditch, War in the Hebrew Bible: A Study in the Ethics of Violence (Oxford University Press, 1993) 3

J. Oswalt, The Bible Among The Myths (Zondervan, 2009) 2

H. R. Page, The Myth of Cosmic Rebellion (Brill, 1996) 3

D. Penchansky, Twilight of the God’s: Polytheism in the Hebrew Bible (Westminster, 2005) 2

B. Pritchard, ed. Ancient Near East, 2 Vols (Princeton University Press/ Oxford University Press, 1958) 3

H. Ringgren, Word and Wisdom: Studies in the Hypostatization of Divine Qualities and Functions in the Ancient Near East (Hakan Ohlssons, 1947) 3

J. M. Roberts, ed., The Bible and the Ancient Near East (Eisenbrauns, 2002) 3

M. S. Smith, The Early History of God: Yahweh and the Other Deities in Ancient Israel (Harper & Row, 1990) 3

B. Sommer, The Bodies of God and the World of Ancient Israel (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2009) 3

K. Sparks, Ancient Texts for the Study of the Hebrew Bible (Hendrickson, 2001) 3

D. R. Tasker, Ancient Near Eastern Literature and the Hebrew Scriptures About The Fatherhood of God (Lang, 2004) 2

R. de Vaux, The Bible and the Ancient Near East (Doubleday, 1971) 2

M. K. Wakeman, God’s Battle With the Monster (Leiden: E. J. Brill, 1973) 3

J. Walton, Ancient Near Eastern Thought and the Old Testament (Baker Academic, 2006) 2

J. Walton, The Lost World of Adam and Eve: Genesis 2-3 And the Human Origins Debate (IVP Academic, 2015) 2

—- The Lost World of Scripture (InterVarsity, 2013) 2

J. Walton, V. Matthews, M. Chavalas, The Bible Background Commentary: Old Testament (InterVarsity) 2

N. Weeks, Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty/Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships (T & T Clark, 2004) 3

G. E. Wright, The Old Testament Against Its Environment (SCM, 1954) 3

D. P. Wright, Inventing God’s Laws: How the Covenant Code of the Bible Used and Revised the Laws of Hammurabi (Oxford University Press, 2009) 3

R. L. Younger, Jr. Ancient Conquest Accounts (Sheffield Academic Press, 1990) 2

Theology of the Old Testament


C. Barth, God With Us: A Theological Introduction of the Old Testament, (Eerdmans, 1991) 2

A. O. Bellis, J. S. Kaminsky, eds., Jews, Christians and the Theology of the Hebrew Bible, (Society of Biblical Literature, 2000) 3

G. Boyd, The Crucifixion of the Warrior God: Volumes 1 & 2 (Fortress Press, 2017) 3

W. Brueggemann, Old Testament Theology: An Introduction (Abingdon, 2008) 2

—- Theology of the Old Testament: Essays on Structure, Theme, and Text (Fortress, 1992) (Fortress, 1997) 3

B. Childs, Biblical Theology in Crisis (Westminster, 1970) 2

B. S. Childs, Introduction to the Old Testament as Scripture (Fortress, 1979) 3

W. Eichrodt, Theology of the Old Testament, 2 vols. (Westminster, 1961, 1967 [1959, 1964]) 3

T. E. Fretheim, God and World in the Old Testament (Abingdon, 2005) 2

J. Goldingay, Old Testament Theology, 2 Vols (InterVarsity Academic, 2006) 2

R. P. Knierim, The Task of Old Testament Theology: Substance, Method, and Cases (Eerdmans, 1995) 3

N. Lohfink, The Christian Meaning of the Old Testament (Bruce, 1968) 3

H. G. Reventlow, Problems of Biblical Theology in the Twentieth Century (Fortress, 1986) 3

A. Soggin, Introduction to the Old Testament (Westminster John Knox, 1989) 2

G. Von Rad, Old Testament Theology (Oliver and Boyd,1962) 3

B. K. Waltke, An Old Testament Theology (Zondervan, 2007) 2