I Bible Interpretation

The Development of the Canon

F. F. Bruce, The Canon of Scripture (InterVarsity, 1988) 2

C. A. Evans, E. Tov, eds., Exploring the Origins of the Bible (Baker Academic, 2008) 2

M. Hengel, The Four Gospels and the One Gospel of Jesus Christ: An Investigation into the Collection and Origin of the Canonical Gospels (Trinity, 2000) 3

L. M. McDonald, J. A. Sanders, eds., The Canon Debate (Hendrickson, 2002) 2

B. Metzger, The Canon of the New Testament (Clarendon, 1987) 2

How To Read The Bible

D.A. Carson, Exegetical Fallacies (Baker Academic, 2nd ed., 1996) 1

D. S. Dockery, Biblical Interpretation Then and Now (Baker Book, 1992) 2

G. Fee, D. Stuart, How To Read the Bible For All Its Worth (Zondervan, 3d ed., 2003) 1

D. Stuart, Old Testament Exegesis (Westminster John Knox, 3d ed., 2009) 2

C. Bartholomew, D. Beldman, eds. Hearing the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 2012) 2

J. Goldingay, Key Questions About Biblical Interpretation (Baker Academic, 2011) 2

J. Goldingay Models for Interpretation of Scripture (Eerdmans, 1995) 3

G, Goldsworthy, Christ-Centered Biblical Theology (IVP Academic, 2012) 2

J. B. Green, Hearing the New Testament (Eerdmans, 1995) 2

W. W. Klein, Introduction to Biblical Interpretation (Thomas Nelson, 2004) 1

R. Longnecker, Biblical Exegesis in the Apostolic Period (Eerdmans, 2nd ed. 1999) 2

S. Murray, Biblical Interpretation in the Anabaptist Tradition (Herald, 2000) 2

G. R. Osborne, Three Crucial Questions Abut the Bible (Baker, 1995) 1

L. Pietersen, Reading the Bible After Christendom (Herald, 2012) 2

A. Thiselton, Hermeneutics (Eerdmans, 2009) 3

C. Westermann, ed., Essays on Old Testament Hermeneutics (John Knox, 1964) 3

N.T. Wright, Scripture and the Authority of God (HarperOne, 2013) 2

Aids To Interpreting the Bible

P. J. Achtemeier, ed., Harper's Bible Dictionary (Harper & Row, 1985) 2

A. Altmann, ed., Biblical Motifs (Harvard University Press, 1966) 3

M. Boda, J. G. McConville, eds., Dictionary of The Old Testament Prophets (IVP Academic, 2012) 2

T. V. Brisco, Holman Bible Atlas (Holman Reference, 2014) 2

F. Brown, S. R. Driver, C. A. Briggs, Hebrew and English Lexicon of the Old Testament (Oxford University Press, 1907) 3

E. W. Bullinger, Figures of Speech Used in the Bible (Baker, rpt. 1968) 3

C. W. Draper, C. Brand, S. England, eds., Holman Illustrated Bible Dictionary (Thomas Nelson, 2003) 2

R. L. Harris, G. L Archer, B. K. Waltke, Theological Wordbook of the Old Testament, 2 vols. (Moody, 1980) 2

K. van der Horn, ed., Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Brill, 1999) 3

T. Longman III, P. Enns, eds., Dictionary of the Old Testament (IVP Academic, 2008) 2

J. J. Rousseau and R. Arav, Jesus and His World: An Archaeological and Cultural Dictionary (SCM, 1996) 2

L. Ryken, ed., Dictionary of Biblical Imagery (InterVarsity, 1998) 2

H. Shanks, D. P. Cole Archaeology and the Bible, 2 Vols (Biblical Archaeological Society, 1990) 2

W.E. Vine, M. Unger, Vine's Complete Expository Dictionary of Old and New Testament Words (Thomas Nelson, 1996) 2

The Theological Interpretation of Scripture

Note: These are books that address the nature and necessity of reading Scripture as God's inspired Word and thus in ways that can discern a surplus of meaning in passages of Scripture (viz. that go beyond the "original intended meaning" of an author). This was the standard way church leaders interpreted the Bible prior to the Enlightenment when scholars began to deny the uniqueness of the Bible and to interpret it the same way they interpreted other ancient works. Greg's interest in the Theological Interpretation of Scripture movement is rooted in his conviction that all Scripture must bear witness to the crucified Christ.



R. Bieringer, R. Burggraeve, E. Nathan, and M. Steegen, eds., Provoked to Speech: Biblical Hermeneutics as Conversation (Peeters, 2014) 3

J. T. Billings, The Word of God for the People of God (Eerdmans, 2010) 2

M. A. Bowald, Rendering the Word in Theological Hermeneutics (Ashgate, 2007) 3

B. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments (Fortress, 1993) 2

E. F. Davis, R. B. Hays, eds., The Art of Reading Scripture (Eerdmans, 2003) 2

G. Free, Listening to the Spirit in the Text (Eerdmans, 2000) 2

S. Fowler, Engaging Scripture (Wipf & Stock, rpt. 2008) 3

H. Frei, The Eclipse of the Biblical Narrative (Yale University Press, 1974) 3

J. Green, Practicing Theological Interpretation (Baker Academic, 2011) 2

---- Seized by Truth: Reading the Bible as Scripture (Zondervan, 3d ed., 2003) 2

C. Hall, Reading Scripture With the Church Fathers (Intervarsity, 1998) 2

R. B. Hays, Reading Backwards (Baylor University Press, 2014) 2

P. Leithart, Deep Exegesis (Baylor University Press, 2009) 3

D. K. McKim, A Guide to Contemporary Hermeneutics (Eerdmans, 1986) 2

R. S. Sugirtharajah, ed., Voices From the Margin: Interpreting the Bible in the Third World (SPCK, 1991) 2

S. Swain, Trinity, Revelation and Reading (T & T Clark, 2011) 3

A. C. Thiselton, New Horizons in Hermeneutics (Zondervan, 1992) 3

D. Treier, Introducing Theological Interpretation of Scripture (Baker, 2008) 1

K. J. Vanhoozer, ed., Dictionary for the Theological Interpretation of the Bible (Baker Academic, 2005) 2

T. Ward, Words of Life (IVP Academic, 2009) 2

F. Watson, Text, Church and World (rand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994) 3

---- Reading Scripture with the Church (Baker Academic, 2006) 3

W. Wink, The Bible in Human Transformation (Fortress, 2010) 1

The Christocentric Reading of Scripture


D. A. Carson , ed., The Scriptures Testify about Me ( Crossway, 2013) 1

B. Chapell, Christ-Centered Preaching (Baker, 2nd ed. 2005) 1

E. Clowney, Preaching Christ in All of Scripture (Crossway, 2003) 1

R. B. Hays, Reading Backwards (Baylor University Press, 2014) 2

G. A. F. Knight, Christ the Center (Eerdmans, 1999) 2

S. Greidanus, Preaching Christ from the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1999) 2

G, Goldsworthy, Christ-Centered Biblical Theology (IVP Academic, 2012) 2

---- Gospel-Centered Hermeneutics (IVP Academic, 2006) 2

---- Preaching the Whole Bible as Christian Scripture (Eerdmans, 2000) 2

K. Tanner, Christ the Key (Cambridge University Press, 2010) 2

T. F. Torrance, The Mediation of Christ (Helmers & Howard, 1992) 2

M. Williams, How to Read the Bible through the Jesus Lens: (Zondervan, 2012) 2

Anabaptist Biblical Interpretation


T. N. Finger, A Contemporary Anabaptist Theology (InterVarsity, 2004) 2

S. Murray, Biblical Interpretation in the Anabaptist Tradition (Herald, 2000) 2

---- The Naked Anabaptist (Herald, 5th Anniversary ed., 2015) 1

L. Pietersen, Reading the Bible After Christendom (Herald, 2012) 2

C. A. Snyder, Anabaptist History and Theology (Pandora, 1995) 2

W. Swartley, ed., Essays on Biblical Interpretation (Institute of Mennonite Studies, 1984) 2

Methodological Issues in Biblical Interpretation


C. Cosgrove, Appealing to Scripture in Moral Debate (Eerdmans, 2002) 2

P. Enns, The Bible Tells Me So…(New York: HarperOne, 2014) 1

S. E. Porter, D. Tomb, eds., Approaches to New Testament Study (Sheffield Academic Press, 1995) 2

D. Flood, Disarming Scripture (Metanoia Books, 2014) 2

H. Frei, The Eclipse of Biblical Narrative (New Haven, CT: Yale University Press, 1974) 3

G. R. Osborne, The Hermeneutical Spiral (InterVarsity, 1991) 2

P. Ricoeur, Essays on Biblical Interpretation (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1980) 3

K. Sparks, God's Word in Human Words (Baker Academic, 2008) 2

A. Thiselton, The Two Horizons (Paternoster, 1980) 3

K. Vanhoozer, Is There a Meaning in this Text? (Zondervan, 1998) 3

F. Watson, Text, Church and World G(rand Rapids: Eerdmans, 1994) 3

N.T. Wright, Surprised by Scripture: Engaging Contemporary Issue (HarperOne, 2015) 2

W. Wink, The Bible in Human Transformation (Fortress, 2010) 1

The Bible and Historical-Critical Issues


B. T. Arnold, R. S. Hess, eds., Ancient Israel's History: An Introduction to Issues and Sources, (Baker Academic, 2014) 2

L. R. Bailey, Noah, the Person and the Story in History and Tradition (University of South Carolina Press, 1989) 2

G. Bartholomew, C. S. Evans, M. Healy, M. Rae, eds., Behind the Text: History and Biblical Interpretation (Zondervan, 2003) 2

C. Braaten, History and Hermeneutics (Westminster, 1968) 3

C. Brown, History and Faith (Zondervan, 1987) 2

J. T. Carroll, et al., Faith and History (Atlanta: Scholars Press, 1990) 3

B. Childs, Biblical Theology in Crisis (Westminster, 1979) 2

---- Myth and Reality in the Old Testament (Allenson, 1960) 3

P. R. Davies, In Search of "Ancient Israel" (T&T Clark, 1992) 3

J. D. G. Dunn, Unity and Diversity in the New Testament (Trinity, 2nd ed., 1990 [1977]) 2

P. Enns, The Evolution of Adam ( Brazos, 2012) 2

---- Inspiration and Incarnation: Evangelicals and the Problem of the Old Testament (Baker Academic, 2005) 2

---- The Bible and the Believer: How to Read the Bible Critically and Religiously (Oxford University Press, 2012) 2

R. A. Harrisville, W. Sundberg, The Bible in Modern Culture: Baruch Spinoza to Brevard Childs (Eerdmans, 2nd ed.; 2002 [1995]) 3

D. H. Fischer, Historians' Fallacies (Harper & Row, 1970) 3

H. Frei, The Eclipse of the Biblical Narrative (Yale University Press, 1974) 3

J. Goldingay, Key Questions About Biblical Interpretation (Baker Academic, 2011) 2

Van A. Harvey, The Historian and the Believer (Macmillan, 1969) 3

T. L. Haskell, Objectivity Is Not Neutrality (Johns Hopkins University Press, 2000) 3

J. K. Hoffmeier, D. R. Magary, eds., Do Historical Matters Matter to Faith? (Crossway, 2012) 2

J. P. Hyatt, ed., The Bible in Modern Scholarship (Abingdon, 1965) 2

N. P. Lemche, The Old Testament Between Theology and History (Westminster John Knox, 2008) 3

J. D. Levenson, The Hebrew Bible, the Old Testament, and Historical Criticism (Westminster John Knox, 1993) 3

P. V. Long, The Art of Biblical History (Eerdmans, 1994) 3

D. Lowenthal, The Past is a Foreign Country (Cambridge University Press, 1985) 3

C.R. North, The Old Testament Interpretation of History (Epworth Press, 1946) 3

G. W. Ramsey, The Quest for the Historical Israel (SCM, 1982) 3

J. A. T. Robinson, Redating the New Testament (Westminster, 1976) 2

W. Ryan, W. Pitman, Noah's Flood: The New Scientific Discoveries about the Event That Changed History (Simon & Schuster, 1998) 2

R. J. Shafer, ed., A Guide to Historical Method (Dorsey, rev. ed.,1974 [1969]) 3

J. L. Sheler, Is the Bible True? (New York: HaperSanFrancisco, 1999) 2

K. Sparks, God's Word in Human Words (Baker Academic, 2008) 2

H. Sun, et.al. eds., Problems in Biblical Theology (Eerdmans, 1997) 2

I. Wilson, Before the Flood: The Biblical Flood as Real Event and How It Changed the Course of Civilization (St. Martin's, 2001) 2

W. Wink, The Bible in Human Transformation (Fortress, 2010) 1

Nature and Significance of Oral Traditions

Note: These are works that address the general reliability of oral traditions in non-literate cultures. Greg's interest in this category is based on the commonly held scholarly conviction that most of the content of the Bible, and especially of the Gospels, circulated as oral tradition before being written down.



E. Bakker, A. Kahane Written Voices, Spoken Signs (Harvard University Press, 1997) 3

S. Byrskog Story as History—History as Story: The Gospel Tradition in the Context of Ancient Oral History (Mohr-Siebeck, 2000) 3

P. Eddy, G. Boyd, The Jesus Legend (Baker, 2006) 3

L. Honko, Textualization of Oral Epics (Mouton de Gruyter, 2000) 3

L. Honko, J. Handoo, J. M. Foley The Epic: Oral and Written (Central Institute of Indian Languages, 1998) 2

W. Kelber, The Oral and the Written Gospel (Fortress, 1983) 3

T. Lentz, Orality and Literacy in Hellenic Greece (Southern Illinois University Press, 1989) 3

T. C. Mournet, Oral Tradition and Literary Dependence: Variability and Stability in the Synoptic Tradition and Q (Mohr-Siebeck, 2005) 3

D. Niles, Homo Narrans: The Poetics and Anthropology of Oral Literature (University of Pennsylvania Press, 1999) 3

D. C. Parker, The Living Text of the Gospels (Cambridge University Press, 1997) 2

E. P. Sanders, M. Davies, Studying the Synoptic Gospels (Trinity, 1989) 3

E. Sienert, M. Cowper-Lewis, N. Bell, eds., Oral Tradition and Its Transmission (University of Natal, 1994) 3

D. Tannen, Orality and Literacy: The Technologizing of the Word (Methuen, 1982) 3

L. Tarkka, ed., Dynamics of Tradition (Finnish Literature Society, 2003) 2

P. Thompson, The Voice of the Past: Oral History (Oxford University Press, 2nd ed., 1988 [1978]) 3

E. Tonkin, Narrating Our Pasts (Cambridge University Press, 1992) 2

J. Vansina, Oral Tradition as History (University of Wisconsin Press, 1985) 2

H. Wansborough, Jesus and the Oral Gospel Tradition (Sheffield Academic Press, 1991) 3

R. G. Willis, On Historical Reconstruction from Oral Traditional Sources (Northwestern University Press, 1976) 3

I. Worthington, Voice into Text: Orality and Literacy in Ancient Greece (Brill, 1996) 3

F. A. Yates, The Art of Memory (University of Chicago Press, 1966) 2

Commentaries on the Whole Bible


G. W. Baker, J. Watts, R. Martin, eds., Word Bible Commentary Series, 24 Vols (Zondervan, 1977-2015) 2

B. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments (Fortress, 1993) 2

L. Keck, The New Interpreters Bible Commentary, 10 Vols. (Abingdon, 2015) 2

E. S. Fioenza, ed. Searching the Scriptures, Vol. 2: A Feminist Commentary (Crossroad, 1994) 2

D. Patte, ed., Global Bible Commentary (Abingdon Press, 2004) 2

T. Fornberg, D. Hellholm, eds., Texts and Context: Biblical texts in Their Textual and Situational Contexts (Scandinavian University Press, 1995) 3

L. Russell, ed., Feminist Interpretation of the Bible (Westminster, 1985) 2

V.D. Verbrugg, The NIV Application Commentary Series, 22 Vols (Zondervan, 1996-2015) 1

Biblical Theology


B. Childs, Biblical Theology of the Old and New Testaments (SCM, 1992) 3

A. A. Das, F. J. Matera, eds., The Forgotten God (Westminster John Knox, 2002) 3

S. J. Draftchick, C. D. Meyers, B. C. Ollenburger, eds., Biblical Theology (Abingdon, 1995) 2

R. Feldmeier, H. Spieckerman, God of the Living: A Biblical Theology (Baylor, 2011) 2

W. Harrington, The Path of Biblical Theology (Macmillan, 1973) 3

H. Sun, et.al. eds., Problems in Biblical Theology (Eerdmans, 1997) 2

W. VanGemeren, The Progress of Redemption (Zondervan Academic, 1988) 2

B. Witherington III, The Living Word of God: Rethinking the Theology of the Bible (Baylor, 2007) 3

C. J. H. Wright, The Mission of God: Unlocking the Bible's Grand Narrative (IVP Academic, 2006) 2

Centrality of Covenant in Scripture

W. J. Dumbrell, Covenant and Creation (Paternoster, 1984) 2

P. Gentry, S. J. Wellum, Kingdom through Covenant (Crossroad, 2012) 2

P. J. Grabe, New Covenant, New Community (Paternoster, 2006) 2

W. Hahn, Covenant and Communion (Brazos, 2008) 2

S. Hahn, Kinship by Covenant (Yale University Press, 2009) 3

D. R. Hillers, Covenant: The History of a Biblical Idea (John Hopkins, 1969) 3

M. Horton, Covenant and Eschatology (Westminster John Knox Press, 2002) 3

M. G. Kline, By Oath Consigned (Eerdmans, 1968) 2

----- The Structure of Biblical Authority (Eerdmans, 1972) 3

R. Murray, Cosmic Covenant: Biblical Themes of Justice, Peace and the Integrity of Creation (Sheed & Ward, 1992) 3

---- J. Niehaus, God at Sinai: Covenant and Theophany in the Bible and the Ancient Near East (Zondervan, 1995) 3

R. Rendtorff, Canon and Theology (Fortress, 1993) 2

M. Smith, The Power of the Blood Covenant (Harrison House, 2006) 2

S. Swain, Trinity, Revelation and Reading (T & T Clark, 2011) 3

K. Vanhoozer, The Drama of Doctrine (Westminster John Knox Press, 1995) 3

P. R. Williamson, Sealed with an Oath (InterVarsity, 2007) 2

N. Weeks, Admonition and Curse: The Ancient Near Eastern Treaty/Covenant Form as a Problem in Inter-Cultural Relationships (T & T Clark, 2004) 3

N.T. Wright, The Climax of the Covenant (Fortress, 1991) 2

Cosmic Conflict/ Spiritual Warfare in Scripture


A. R. Angel, Chaos and the Son of Man: (T&T Clark, 2006) 3

C. Arnold, Powers of Darkness (InterVarsity, 1992) 2

C. Auffarth, L. T. Stuckenbruck, The Fall of the Angels (Brill, 2004) 2

B. Batto, Slaying the Dragon (Westminser John Knox, 1992) 3

.J Bandstra, The Law and the Elements of the World: An Exegetical Study in Aspects of Paul's Teaching (Kok, 1964) 3

J. Beilby, P. R. Eddy, Understanding Spiritual Warfare: Four Views (BakerAcademic, 2012) 2

O. Blocker, O. Böcher, Christus Exorcista (Kohlhammer, 1972) 3

---- Dämonenfurcht und Dämonebabwehr (Kohlhammer, 1970) 3

---- Das Neue Testament und die dämonischen Mächte (Katholisches Bibelwerk, 1972) 3

G. Boyd, God at War (InterVarsity, 1997) 3

---- Satan and the Problem of Evil (InterVarsity, 2001) 3

C. Caird, Principalities and Powers: A Study in Pauline Theology (Clarendon, 1956) 2

J. Clifford, The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament (Harvard University Press, 1972) 3

D. Cole, ed, Servant God: The Cosmic Conflict Over God's Trustworthiness (Loma Linda University Press, 2013) 2

F. Cross, Canaanite Myth and Hebrew Epic (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1973) 3

P. L. Day, An Adversary in Heaven (Scholars Press, 1995) 2

J. Day, God's Conflict With the Dragon and the Sea: Echoes of a Canaanite Myth in the Old Testament (Cambridge University Press, 1985) 3

---- Yahweh and the Gods and Goddesses of Canaan (Sheffield Academic Press, 2000) 3

V. Eller, Christian Anarchy: Jesus' Primacy over the Powers (Eerdmans, 1987) 2

N. Forsyth, The Old Enemy: Satan and the Combat Myth (Princeton University Press, 1987) 2

R. S. Fyall, Now My Eyes Have Seen You: Images of Creation and Evil in the Book of Job (InterVarsity, 2002) 3

E. Ferguson, Demonology of the Early Christian World (Edwin Mellen Press, 1984) 3

K. Wa Gatumu, The Pauline Concept of Supernatural Powers (Paternoster, 2008) 2

S. Garret, The Demise of the Devil: Magic and the Demonic in Luke's Writings (Fortress, 1989) 3

H. Gunkel, Schöpfung und Chaos in Urzeit und Endzeit: Eine religiongeschichtliche Unterruschung über Gen 1 und Ap Job 12 (Vandenhoeck und Ruprecht, 1895) 3

A. H. van den Heuvel, Those Rebellious Powers (Friendship, 1965) 2

K. van der Horn, ed., Dictionary of Deities and Demons in the Bible (Brill, 1999) 3

R. A. Johnson, "The Old Testament Background for Paul's Use of 'Principalities and Powers'"(Ph.D. Diss. Dallas Theological Seminary, 2004) 3

J. Kallas, Jesus and the Power of Satan (Westminster, 1968) 2

---- The Significance of the Synoptic Miracles (Seabury Press, 1961) 2

S.-M. Kang, Divine War in the Old Testament and in the Ancient Near East (de Gruyter, 1989) 3

H. Kaupel, Die Dämonen im Alten Testament (B. Fisher, 1930) 3

H. A. Kelley, The Devil at Baptism: Ritual, Theology and Drama (Cornel University Press, 1965) 2

M. Klingbeil, Yahweh Fighting From Heaven: God as Warrior and as God of Heaven in the Hebrew Psalter and Ancient Near East Iconography (Vandenhoeck & Ruprecht, 1999) 3

C. Kloos, Yhwh's Combat with the Sea: A Canaanite Tradition in the Religion of Ancient Israel (Brill, 1986) 3

A. König, New and Greater Things (University of South Africa Press, 1988) 2

E. Langton, Essentials of Demonology (Epworth, 1949) 2

R. Leivestad, Christ the Conqueror: Ideas of Conflict and Victory in the New Testament (Macmillan, 1954) 2

J. Levenson, Creation and the Persistence of Evil (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1988) 3

M. C. Lind, Yahweh is a Warrior (Herald, 1980) 3

T. Ling, The Significance of Satan (SPCK, 1961) 2

T. Longman, III, D. G. Reid, God is a Warrior (Zondervan, 1995) 2

B. Magyarosi, Holy War and Cosmic Conflict in the Old Testament (Lithotech, 2010) 3

P. Middleton, Radical Martyrdom and Cosmic Conflict in Early Christianity (T&T Clark, 2006) 3

P.D. Miller, The Divine Warrior in Early Israel (Harvard University Press, 1973) 3

T. Mullen Jr., The Assembly of the Gods: The Divine Council in Canaanite and Early Hebrew Literature (Chico, CA: Scholars Press, 1980) 3

S. E. Noll, Angels of Light, Powers of Darkness (InterVarsity, 1998) 2

H. R. Page, The Myth of Cosmic Rebellion (Brill, 1996) 3

J. Russell, The Devil: Perceptions of Evil from Antiquity to Primitive Christianity (Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1977) 2

---- Satan: The Early Christian Tradition (Ithaca, N.Y.: Cornell University Press, 1981) 2

G. E. Smith, The Evolution of the Dragon (Manchester University Press, 1919) 2

E. Theile, M. Theile, Job and the Devil (Pacific Press, 1988) 1

G. Twelftree, Jesus the Exorcist (Mohr Siebeck, 1993) 3

---- In the Name of Jesus: Exorcism Among Early Christians (Baker, 2007) 2

P. G. R. de Villers, Like a Roaring Lion (University of South Africa, 1987) 2

M. K. Wakeman, God's Battle With the Monster (Brill, 1973) 3

G. Wingren, The Living Word (Muhlenberg, 1960 [1949]) 2

W. Wink.. Naming the Powers (Philadelphia: Fortress, 1984) 3

A. Yarbro Collins, The Combat Myth in the Book of Revelation (Scholars Press, 1976) 3

T. R. Yoder Neufeld, 'Put on the Armour of God': The Divine Warrior from Isaiah to Ephesians (Sheffield Academic, 1997) 3

The "Dark Side" of Scripture

Note: These are works that address problematic and offensive aspects of the Bible, such as its violent portraits of God, its sexism, and its condoning of slavery. While Evangelicals typically try to minimize or attempt to explain away the offensive ugliness of this material, Greg instead contends that Christians should honestly acknowledge the full extent of the offensive ugliness of this material. In his forthcoming book, The Crucifixion of the Warrior God, Greg argues that, when this material is interpreted in light of the cross , we can discern how the ugliness of this material bears witness to the God who bore the horrific ugliness of our sin on Calvary.


L. Barret, The Way God Fights: War and Peace in the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1978) 2

M. Bergmann, M. J. Murray, M. C. Rea, eds., Divine Evil?: (Oxford University Press, 2011) 3

D. Bernat, J. Klawans, eds. Religion and Violence: The Biblical Heritage (Sheffield Phoenix, 2007) 3

K. Berthelot, J. E. David, M. Hirshman, The Gift of the Land and the Fate of the Canaanites in Jewish Thought (Oxford University Press, 2014) 3

D. G. Bloesch, Is the Bible Sexist? (Wipf & Stock, 2001) 2

D. Blumenthal, Facing the Abusing God: A Theology of Protest (Westminster John Knox, 1993) 3

G. Boyd, The Crucifixion of the Warrior God: Volumes 1 & 2 (Fortress Press, 2017) 3

--- God at War (InterVarsity, 1996) 3

--- Satan and the Problem of Evil (2001) 3

W. Brueggeman, Divine Presence Amid Violence (Cascade, 2009) 2

M. M. Campbell, Light on the Dark Side of God (Truth For the Final Generation, 2003 [1989]) 1

R. P. Carroll, Wolf in Sheep's Clothing: the Bible as a Problem for Christianity (SPCK, 1991) 3

J. J. Collins, Does The Bible Justify Violence? (Fortress, 2004) 2

P. Copan, Is God a Moral Monster? (Baker, 2011) 2

P. Copan, M. Flannagan, Did God Really Command Genocide? (BakerAcademic, 2014) 3

C.S. Cowles, et. al. Show Them No Mercy (Zondervan, 2003) 2

P. C. Craigie, The Problem of War in the Old Testament (Wipf and Stock, 2002 [1978]) 2

J. Creach, Violence in Scripture (Westminster John Knox, 2013) 3

E. W. Davies, The Immoral Bible (T & T Clark, 2010) 2

K. J. Dell, ed., The Ethical and Unethical in the Old Testament (Clark, 2010) 2

E. O. Douglin, God's Character: The Best News in the Universe! (Truth for the Final Generation, 2001) 1

D. Earl, The Joshua Delusion? (Cascade Books, 2010) 2

H. Ellens, ed., The Destructive Power of Religion: Vol. 1 (Praeger, 2004) 3

V. Eller, War and Peace From Genesis to Revelation (Wipf & Stock, 2003 [1981]) 1

P. Enns, The Bible Tells Me So…( HarperOne, 2014) 2

J. T. Fitzgerald, et al, eds., Animosity, the Bible, and Us (Society of Biblical Literature, 2009) 3

D. Flood, Disarming Scripture (Metanoia Books, 2014) 2

---- Healing the Gospel (Cascade Books, 2012) 2

H. Frederiksson, Jahwe als Krieger (Gleerup, 1945) 3

R. Girard, Things Hidden Since the Foundation of the World (Stanford University Press, 1977) 2

---- Violence and the Sacred (John Hopkins University Press, 1977) 2

R. S. Hess, E. A. Martens, eds., War in the Bible and Terrorism in the Twenty-First Century (Eisenbrauns, 2008) 3

T. R. Hobbs, A Time for War: A Study of Warfare in the Old Testament (Mellen, 1993) 3

P. Jenkins, Laying Down The Sword (HarperOne, 2011) 2

C. C. Kroeger, J. R. Beck, eds., Women, Abuse, and the Bible (Baker, 1996) 2

M.C. Lind, Yahweh is a Warrior (Herald, 1990) 3

F. Lindström, God and the Origin of Evil (Gleerup, 1983) 3

---- Suffering and Sin (Almqvist & Wicksell, 1994) 3

D. Lamb, God Behaving Badly (InterVarsity, 2011) 1

T. Linafelt, T. K. Beal, eds., God in the Fray (Fortress, 1998) 3

M. C. Lind, Yahweh is a Warrior (Herald Press, 1980) 3

K. Löning, E. Zenger, To Begin with, God Created….: Biblical Theologies of Creation (Liturgical Press, 2000) 2

G. Lüdemann, The Unholy in Holy Scriptures (Westminster John Knox, 1997) 2

S. Matthews, E. L. Gibson, eds., Violence in the New Testament (T & T Clark, 2005) 2

P. McDonald, God and Violence (Herald Press, 2004) 2

M. J. Murray, Michael C. Rea. eds., Divine Evil? (Oxford University Press, 2011) 2

S. Niditch, War in the Hebrew Bible (Oxford University Press, 1993) 3

A. Orr-Ewing, Is the Bible Intolerant? Sexist? Oppressive? Homophobic? Outdated? Irrelevant? (InterVarsity, 2012) 1

D. Penchansky, What Rough Beast? (Westminister John Knox, 1999) 3

M. J. Ramage, Dark Passages of the Bible: Engaging Scripture with Benedict XVI & Thomas Aquinas (Washington, D.C.: Catholic University of America Press, 2013) 3

L.L. Rowlett, Joshua and the Rhetoric of Violence (Sheffield Academic Press, 1996) 3

R Schwager, Must There Be Scapegoats? (Harper Collins, 1987) 2

R. M. Schwartz, The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism (Chicago University Press, 1997) 2

Y. Sherwood, J. Bekkenkamp, eds., Sanctified Aggression: Legacies of Biblical and Post-Biblical Vocabularies of Violence (T & T Clark, 2003) 3

E. Seibert, Disturbing Divine Behavior (Fortress Press, 2009) 2

C. Sherlock, The God Who Fights: The War Tradition in Holy Scripture (Glazier, 1989) 2

K. Sparks, Sacred Word Broken Word (Eerdmans, 2012) 2

T. Stark, The Human Face of God (Wipf & Stock, 2011) 2

M. Strauss, Jesus Behaving Badly (IVP Books, 2015) 2

A.A. Thomas, J. Evans, P.Copans, eds. Holy War in the Bible (InterVarsity, 2013) 2

A. Thompson, Who's Afraid of the Old Testament God? (Pacesetters Bible School, 4th rev. ed., 2003 [1988]) 1

D. Weaver, The Non-Violent God (Grand Rapids: Eerdmans, 2013) 2

P. Trible, Texts of Terror (Fortress, 1984) 2

W. Webb, Slaves, Women, and Homosexuals (InterVarsity, 2001) 2

J.G. Williams, The Bible, Violence, and the Sacred (Trinity Press International 1995) 3

T. Yoder Neufeld, Killing Enmity (Baker Academic, 2011) 2

---- "Put on the Armour of God": The Divine Warrior from Isaiah to Ephesians (Shefflield Academi Press, 1997) 3

J. Young, The Violence of God and the War on Terror (Seabury, 2008) 2

M. Zehnder, H. Hagelia, Encountering Violence in the Bible (Sheffield: Sheffield Phoenix Press, 2013) 3

Other Themes in Biblical Theology

W. Achtner, S. Kunz, T. Walter, Dimensions of Time (Eerdmans, 2002) 2

B. Anderson, From Creation to New Creation: Old Testament Perspectives (Minneapolis: Fortress, 1994) 2

S. E. Ballentine, The Hidden God (Oxford University Press, 1983) 3

---- Prayer in the Hebrew Bible (Fortress, 1993) 3

M. Barrett, A. B. Canedday, S. N. Gundry, eds., Four Views of the Historical Adam (Zondervan, 2013) 2

J. Blenkinsopp Creation, Uncreation, Re-Creation: A Discursive Commentary on Genesis 1-11 (T&T Clark, 2011) 2

M. Z. Brettler, God is King (Sheffield Academic Press, 1989) 3

J. K. Bruckner, Implied Law in the Abraham Narrative (Sheffield Academic Press, 2001) 3

W. Brueggemann, The Land: Place as Gift, Promise, and Challenge in Biblical Faith (Fortress, 2nd ed., 2002) 3

J. S. Burnett, Where is God? Divine Absence in the Hebrew Bible (Fortress, 2010) 2

G. M. Burge, Jesus and the Land: The New Testament Challenge to "Holy Land" Theology (Baker Academic, 2010) 2

S. B. Child Myth and Reality in the Old Testament (Allenson, 1960) 3

J. Clifford, The Cosmic Mountain in Canaan and the Old Testament (Harvard University Press, 1972) 3

S. Collins, L. C. Scott, Discovering the City of Sodom: The Fascinating, True Account of the Discovery of the Old Testament's Most Infamous City (Howard, 2013) 2

R. M. Davidson, Flame of Yahweh: Sexuality in the Old Testament (Hendrickson, 2007) 2

S. G. Dempster, Dominion and Dynasty (InterVarsity, 2003) 2

R. Dussaud, Les origins cananéennes du sacrifice Israélite, (E. Leroux, 2nd ed., 1941) 2

J. Enz, The Christian and Warfare: The Roots of Pacifism in the Old Testament (Herald, 1972) 2

L. Eslinger & G. Taylor, Ascribe to the Lord (Sheffield Academic Press, 1988) 3

A. D. Freedman, God as an Absent Character in Biblical Hebrew Narrative: A Literary-Theoretical Study (Lang, 2005) 3

T. Fretheim, The Suffering of God: An Old Testament Perspective (Fortress 1984) 2

R. Gnuse, No Tolerance for Tyrants: The Biblical Assault on Kings and Kingship (Liturgical, 2011) 2

J. Goldingay, Theological Diversity and the Authority of the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1987) 3

E. Hamori, "When Gods Were Men": The Embodied God in Biblical and Near Eastern Literature (de Gruyter, 2008) 4

A. J. Heschel, The Prophets, 2 Vols (Harper & Row, 1962) 3

A. R. Johnson, The One and the Many in the Israelite Conception of God (University of Wales Press, 1961) 3

S. Kaminsky, Corporate Responsibility in the Hebrew Bible (Sheffeld Academic Press, 1995) 3

S. T. Kamionkowski, W. Kim, eds., Bodies, Embodiment, and Theology of the Hebrew Bible (T&T Clark, 2010) 3

W. Kim, eds., Bodies, Embodiment, and Theology of the Hebrew Bible (T&T Clark, 2010) 3

A. K. Knafl, Forming God: Divine Anthropomorphism in the Pentateuch (Eisenbrauns, 2014) 3

M. C. A. Korpel , A Rift in the Clouds: Ugaritic and Hebrew Descriptions of the Divine (Ugarit-Verlag, 1990) 4

A. J. Köstenberger, P. O'Brien, Salvation to the Ends of the Earth ( InterVarsity, 2001) 2

J. Krasovec, Reward, Punishment and Forgiveness: The Thinking and Beliefs of Ancient Israel in the Light of Greek and Modern Views (Brill, 1999) 3

Antti Laato and Johannes C. de Moor, eds. Theodicy in the World of the Bible (Brill, 2003) 2

B. Lang, The Hebrew God (Yale University Press, 2002) 2

F. Lindström, God and the Origin of Evil (Gleerup, 1983) 3

N. Lohfink, Great Themes from the Old Testament (Franciscan Herald Press, 1982) 2

P. D. Miller, Sin and Judgment in the Prophets (Scholars Press, 1982) 3

John Milton, Prophecy Interpreted (Augsburg, 1960) 3

Y. Muffs, The Personhood of God (Jewish Lights, 2005) 2

M. Noth, ed., The Laws in the Pentateuch and Other Studies (Fortress, 1967) 3

J. Peckham, The Love of God (IVP Academic, 2015) 2

C. Pinnock, R. Brow, Unbounded Love (InterVarsity, 1994) 2

H. Ringgren, Word and Wisdom: Studies in the Hypostatization of Divine Qualities and Functions in the Ancient Near East (Hakan Ohlssons, 1947) 3

F. W. Robinson, Corporate Personality in Ancient Israel (Fortress, 1980) 3

R. Simkins, Creator and Creation (Hendrickson, 1994) 2

W. Swartley, Covenant of Peace (Eerdmans, 2006) 2

S. Travis, Christ and the Judgment of God (Hendrickson 2008) 2

N. L. Tromp, Primitive Conceptions of Death and the Nether World in the Old Testament (Pontifical Biblical Institute, 1969) 3

D. Weaver, The Non-Violent God (Grand Rapids/Cambridge: Eerdmans, 2013) 2

C. J. H. Wright, God's People in God's Land: Family, Land and Property in the Old Testament (Eerdmans, 1990) 2

R. F. Youngblood, ed., The Genesis Debate: Persistent Questions About Creation and Flood (Baker, 1990) 2